TUGHLAQ DYNASTY( 1320-1412 AD)
The Tughlaq dynasty came to power over the Delhi sultanate after the Khaljis. Qutubuddin Mubarak Shah the last ruler of the Khaljis was killed by Ghazi Malik/Ghiyasudding Tughlaq.
Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq (1320-1324AD)
- Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq was the founder of Tughlaq dynasty.
- He was a commander in the army of Alauddin. He belongs to Turkish ancestry from paternal side and Hindu Jat from maternal side.
- Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq was initially appointed as a Governor of Dipalpur during Alauddin’s reign.
- He defeated the Mongols and got the title of Malik-Ul-Ghazi. Also, known as the Ghazi Tughlaq /Ghazi Beigh Tughlaq.
- In his expeditions he sent his son Muhammad Bin Tughlaq to south India to establish territorial authority over South.
- He had built the Tughlaqabad fort. He was the first to start the irrigation work.
Muhammad Bin Tughlaq (1324-1351AD)
- He became sultan of Delhi after the Death of his father Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq. His childhood name was Juana Khan.
- Muhammad Bin Tughlaq was famous for his experiments. Hence, he was also known as the wise fool king.
- He was the first among the sultans who participated in many of the Hindu rituals such as Holi.
- Made a city near Delhi in the name of Adilabad (abode of justice) or the city of Jahanpanah.
Experiments by Muhammad Bin Tughlaq:-
- He transferred the capital from Delhi to Daulatabad in order to make his easy path for expansion to South India. Later he reverted back to Delhi as he found it difficult to control North from Daulatabad.
- Ibn Battuta a Sufi saint came to Delhi during his reign I 1333 AD . Ibn Battuta had written ‘Rihala’.
- He made a huge army to conquer the Iraq and Khurasan. He was in dream of conquering the universe.
- Muhammad wanted to expand his territory area up to the Ghazni and Afghanistan (covering the area up to the Hindukush and Qandhar ). This experiment was failed due to some reason.
- Muhammad Bin Tughlaq carried many experiments such as Qarachil expedition in the Kumaon-Gharwal regions and Kashmir region in order to counter the Chinese incursions.
- Introduced the Token currency made up of bronze due to shortage of the Silver. It was made equivalent to Silver Tankas. People tried to mint in large quantity which led to market crash and devaluation of the token currency.
- He made gold coins called Dinars and silver coins called Adls.
- Created a new department of Agriculture to make more land available for cultivation. He increased the taxation such as Ghari and Charai .
- During his rein many rebellions took place. In south also rebellions were teken place such as rebellion by Harihar and Bukka who later established the Vijayanagar Kingdom.
- He died in Thatta while campaining in Sindh in 351 AD.
Firoz Shah Tughlaq (1351-1388AD)
- After the death of Muhammad Bin Tughlaq, Firoz took over as the Sultan of Delhi.
- He went to Thatta (Sindh) to suppress the rebellion .
- And marched towards Odisha and Nagarkot and collected many manuscripts from Jwalamukhi temple. Later, He translated into Persian language by Arizuddin Khan .
- Iqtadari system was introduced in his reign where soldiers were recruited hereditarily and Jagir (land assignments) system was kept under these soldiers.
- He made many welfare oriented works such as he established the Diwan-i- Khairat (department of Charity for poor. Built many hospitals for free treatment of poor people.
- Muhammad Bin Tughlaq introduced coins like Adha and Bitch. He introduced the irrigation tax known as Sharb.
- Famous for construction Canals for Irrigation purpose.
- He founded many cities such as jaunpur, Fatehbad, Hissar, Firozpur, and Firozabad etc.
- Muhammad Bin Tughlaq brought two Ashokan pillar from Meerut and Khizrabad to Delhi.
- His contributions in the field of Science and astronomy was air enough. Fateh Khan compiled many books like Burroj, Shikar nameh, and Zigr-i-munsobatb during his reign.
- He titled himself as the deputy of Khalifa of Egypt. He died in 1388 AD.
Nasiruddin Mahmud (1394-1412AD)
- Nasiruddin Mahmud took over as the sultan after Firoz Shah Tughlaq.
- He was a weaker king, as compared to his ancestors. In his reign Malwa got independent.
- During his reign Turkish ruler Timur invaded India. Then he occupied the throne of Delhi in 1398 AD.
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