The Vedic Period

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                  RIG VEDIC PERIOD                                          LATER VEDIC PERIOD

1. Period: 1500 to 1000 BC.


2. Aryans are the propounders of this vedic civilization believed to from Steppes stretching from South Russia to Central Asia.


3. Political:

-The king was known as Rajan, and tribe was known as Jana. And the Rajan was aided by a Purohita, a senani and

            – Villages were headed by Gramini.



4. Society:

-Janas ware loyal to the tribe         theuy used to be in and to their    kings.  Till now no kingdoms were   established.   

– Women were treated in equal     status as men and respected and      have liberty.



5. Religious mindset:

– People uded to Worship nature.             Indra was most important God.             Other Gods like Soma, Pashu etc             were worshipped for food, good             health and wealth.

– No idol worship in temples were found  till this time.

– God prayer was important way of worshipping 


6.  Economy: No revenue system. Kingdoms mainly run by voluntary tributes called bali  and property won in the battles called as booty.

– Mainly pastoral people and cow was the standard unit of measuring the status.

– Barley was a staple crop.


1. Period:1000 to 500BC.


2. Aryans expanded over the whole western UP covering the Ganga-Yamuna doab region. 



3. Political:

-The king became more powerful called as Samrat.

– kings position were strengthened performing rituals like Aswamedha and Vajapeya yajnas



4. Society:

-People  were classified into 04 groups like Brahmana, Kshatriya, vaishya and Shudra, 

– Gotra system used to evolve.

Women position in the society used get deteriorated




5. Religious mindset:

– God Prajapati, Vishnu, Rudra etc were worshipped.

–   Idol worship and temple building started.

– Animal sacrifices were started    rather than prayers




6. Economy: Town and settled life began.

Main occupation shifted to agriculture from pastoral life.

– Smith workers and other occupation began to rise

-Wheat and rice became staple food



Rigveda: The oldest veda and contains 1028 hymns 10 mandalas. Gayatrimantra was found in this veda

Sama veda: It is the collections of the melodies and chants.

Yajur veda It is the veda containing  hymns on  sacrifices  and rituals

Atharva veda: This veda ccontains the black magic and spells to ward of the evil spirits.


    Each Veda have several Brahmanas, which contains the ritualistic formulaes and also the meaning of the rituals:

Ø    Rigveda has Kaushitaki and Aitareya

Ø    Sama veda has Panchvish and Jemineya

Ø    Yajur veda has Taittiriya and Satapatha

Ø    Atharva veda has Gopatha


               These are the literatures of the vedic periods which are mainly written by the pupils and saints living in the jungles.


–           There are 108 Upanishadas in number out of which Brihqadaranyaka is the oldest one 

–           These literatures of the Vedic religions values the philosophical texts on right beliefs and knowledge criticizing the rituals and animal sacrifices .


–           It contains all the rules and regulations of the vedic life e.g the manusmriti is the first law book explaining the nominal social and political life of the people.


(Limbs of the Vedas)


Shiksha:       Deals with the Pronunciation       

Kalp:             Deals with the Rituals

Vyakarana:   Deals with the grammar                 

Nikrukta:       Deals with Explanations

Chhanda:     Deals with metrics

Jyotish:         Deals with Astrology 


Dhanurvedaveda:              Art of warfare

Gandharvaveda:                 Art and music          

Shilpaveda:                          Architecture 

Ayurveda:                             Medicine       


EPICS:  Mahabharat written by Vyasa and Ramayana written by Balmiki are the most important epics of this vedic period  

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