RIG VEDIC PERIOD LATER VEDIC PERIOD
1. Period: 1500 to 1000 BC.
2. Aryans are the propounders of this vedic civilization believed to from Steppes stretching from South Russia to Central Asia.
-The king was known as Rajan, and tribe was known as Jana. And the Rajan was aided by a Purohita, a senani and
– Villages were headed by Gramini.
-Janas ware loyal to the tribe theuy used to be in and to their kings. Till now no kingdoms were established.
– Women were treated in equal status as men and respected and have liberty.
5. Religious mindset:
– People uded to Worship nature. Indra was most important God. Other Gods like Soma, Pashu etc were worshipped for food, good health and wealth.
– No idol worship in temples were found till this time.
– God prayer was important way of worshipping
6. Economy: No revenue system. Kingdoms mainly run by voluntary tributes called bali and property won in the battles called as booty.
– Mainly pastoral people and cow was the standard unit of measuring the status.
– Barley was a staple crop.
1. Period:1000 to 500BC.
2. Aryans expanded over the whole western UP covering the Ganga-Yamuna doab region.
-The king became more powerful called as Samrat.
– kings position were strengthened performing rituals like Aswamedha and Vajapeya yajnas
-People were classified into 04 groups like Brahmana, Kshatriya, vaishya and Shudra,
– Gotra system used to evolve.
Women position in the society used get deteriorated
5. Religious mindset:
– God Prajapati, Vishnu, Rudra etc were worshipped.
– Idol worship and temple building started.
– Animal sacrifices were started rather than prayers
6. Economy: Town and settled life began.
Main occupation shifted to agriculture from pastoral life.
– Smith workers and other occupation began to rise
-Wheat and rice became staple food
Rigveda: The oldest veda and contains 1028 hymns 10 mandalas. Gayatrimantra was found in this veda
Sama veda: It is the collections of the melodies and chants.
Yajur veda It is the veda containing hymns on sacrifices and rituals
Atharva veda: This veda ccontains the black magic and spells to ward of the evil spirits.
¶ Each Veda have several Brahmanas, which contains the ritualistic formulaes and also the meaning of the rituals:
Ø Rigveda has Kaushitaki and Aitareya
Ø Sama veda has Panchvish and Jemineya
Ø Yajur veda has Taittiriya and Satapatha
Ø Atharva veda has Gopatha
– These are the literatures of the vedic periods which are mainly written by the pupils and saints living in the jungles.
– There are 108 Upanishadas in number out of which Brihqadaranyaka is the oldest one
– These literatures of the Vedic religions values the philosophical texts on right beliefs and knowledge criticizing the rituals and animal sacrifices .
– It contains all the rules and regulations of the vedic life e.g the manusmriti is the first law book explaining the nominal social and political life of the people.
(Limbs of the Vedas)
Shiksha: Deals with the Pronunciation
Kalp: Deals with the Rituals
Vyakarana: Deals with the grammar
Nikrukta: Deals with Explanations
Chhanda: Deals with metrics
Jyotish: Deals with Astrology
Dhanurvedaveda: Art of warfare
Gandharvaveda: Art and music
EPICS: Mahabharat written by Vyasa and Ramayana written by Balmiki are the most important epics of this vedic period