The Khalji Dynasty(1290-1320AD)
The Khalji Dynasty came to existence in the throne of Delh after the Ilbari dynasty. Initially the minister of the war between the Mongols and the Slave dynasty, Firoz laid the foundation and later adopted the title of Jalaluddin Khalji.
Jalaluddin Khalji (1290-1296 AD)
- The founder of the Khalji Dynasty
- Initially he was the chief of the royal bodyguard during Sultan Kaiqubad’s reign.
- He was the first ruler of Delhi sultanate who believes India could not be a Islamic state as the majority of the people of India were Hindus.
- His most important expedition was towards the Devgiri. He sent his nephew and later son in law Alauddin Khalji (Ali Gurshap) to conquer Devgiri. Jalluddin Khalji defeated the ruler of Devgiri, Ramachandra Deva and looted the treasure.
- He also led an another expedition to Ranthambhor in 1290 AD.
- Finally, he was assassinated by his son in law Alauddin Khalji in 1296 AD.
- After killing his father in law Jalauddin Khalji he usurped the throne of Delhi in 1296 AD.
- He acclaimed the title of Amir-i-Tuzuk (Master of ceremonies) and Ariz-i-Mamalik (Minister of War). He also followed the footsteps of Balban as Kingship knows no Kinship.
- Alauddin Khalji imposed the tax system on excess holding of land in cash.
- He prohibited the use of liquor and intoxicants and also pass a verdict not to marry in inter-cast without obtaining prior permission from him.
- He looted the famous Somnath temple in 1299 AD
- Captured the Ranthambor port by defeating the Hamir Deva. Later he captured the Malwa, Ujjain, Chanderi Dhar etc.
- After capturing the Anhilwara, he gave the control of Gujrat to Alp Khan.
- He then captured the Chittor and renamed it as Khizrbad after making his son Khizr khan its governor.
- His important expeditions were against Rai karanof Malwa and Rai ramachandra of Deogir.
- Malik Kafur slave of Alauddin Khalji was the commander of these expeditions. Later he became the governor of Deogiri. Malik was also known as Thousand Dinar Khafur. He raised the son of Alauddin Khalji, Shihabuddin Khalji as a child Puppet mocarh.
- Malik Kafur helped in many expeditions to Alauddin Khalji and brought him gathering of gold and wealth.
- Alauddin Khalji gave Amir Khusrau the title of Tuti-i-Hind(parrot of india)
- He constructed jamait Khana Mosque, Alai Darwaja, Hauz Khas, Mahal Hazar Satoon etc.
Administration of Alauddin Khalji
- Alauddin khalji was the first Sultan to introduce the tax system in Cash.
- He introduced this land revenue system(Diwani-i-mustakhraj) and measurement in terms of Bigha/ Biswa (1 Bigha=20 Biswa).
- Alauddin cut the intervening power of the Khuts, Muqaddams and Chanderis. They had also to pay tax on land/house (Ghari) property and Milch cattle (Charai).
- He strengthened his army up to 3 lakhs. He introduced the Chehra9descriptive role of soldier) and branding of his horses (Dagh system).
- Alauddin Khalji set up three market systems at Delhi. First one grains, second one for cloth and third one for horses, slaves and cattle under the headship of Shahna
Market Policy of Alauddin khalji
- His market policy were very harsh. As he could not bear with any type of cheating in the business. He introduced the concept of market controller(Shahna-i-mandi) and appointed the Diwan-i-riyasat( for department of Commerce).
- He also appointed the secret agents (Muhniyans), in order to gather information on illegal activities in the market. And some intelligence officers known as Barid-i-mandi.
- After the death of Alauddin Khalji his son Qutbuddin Mubarak Shah Khalji became the sultan of Delhi. He disfolowed the Malik Kafur and his father’s rules and regulations. He was later killed by his brother Nasiruddin Khusrau Shah Khalji, who usurped the throne. Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq later killed Nasiruddin Khusrau Shah and ended the Khalji dynasty.