- JAINISM AND BUDDHISM
The similarities and difference between the Buddhism and the Jainism gives us a overlook on these two ancient Indian religions. Both religions came to existence around 600 BC. Rise of Buddhism and Jainism in India got popularity in that time. The reason behind the evolve of these religions is the dominance of Brahmanas in the late vedic period and their inferior feeling towards other vernas of the society. Superior castes used to treat other lower castes such as Sudras and Vaishyas badly during these time and in order to confront these issues different revolt were aroused and people started following other non caste-centric religions. Both the Buddhism and Jainism do not believe in the Caste system as comparison to vedic period. Out of these newly evolved religions most important are the Buddhism and Jainism. Both the religions gave stress on the equality among all. In buddhism and jainism idolatry was not prevalent as present in then contemporary India.
In the section practice a good set of questions and answers
Rishavdev founded Jainism and he is considered as the first tirthankar. There are 24 such tirthankaras meaning great teachers in the Jainism. 23rd tirthankara Parshavanath and 24th was Vardhaman Mahavir. Mahavir is the real propounder of this religion as during his time the religion was spread across the country and got a actual recognition.
Born in 540 BC in Kundagram near vaishali(in peresnt Bihar). His father’s name was Siddharth and mother’s name was Trishala. From the childhood he had shown Spiritual awakening and gave up the worldy life from the age of 30 and lead a ascetic life of a saint.
>He had married to Yashoda and had a daughter named Priyadashi. Her husband became the first ever disciple of Mahavir.
>He attained the Kaivalya (Jin) at the age of 42 and continue to spread the religion through sermons.
>Mahavira died at the age of 72 in Pavapuri.
Five doctrines of the Jainism are:-
a. Do not commit violence(Ahimsha)
b. Do not steal(Asteya)
c. Do not acquire property(Aparigraha)
d. Do not speak lie (Satya)
e. Observe continence (Brahmacharya)
Triratnas of Jainism: (1) Right faith (2) Right knowledge (3) Right conduct
>Jainism recognized the existence of the God but always Verna system unlike other religions
>Jainism could not completely free from the dominance of the Brahminical influence, hence failed to attract the masses.
>Kharavela the king of Kalinga patronized Jainism. Chandragupta Maurya spreaded the religion to the South.
>Jainism was divided into two sects as Svetambaras (wearing the white dress) and Digambaras (naked). A
>All the Jain texts were written in the Prakrit language.
1st Council: (300BC) was held at Pataliputra under the patronage of King Stulabhadra
2nd Council: (5th Century) was held at Vallabhi under the patronage of King Kshamasramana. 12 Angas and 12 upangas were written in Ardh-Magadhi language.
It was funded by Gautama Buddha. His Childhood name was Siddhartha. He is also known as Shakyamuni or tathagata. Buddhism was more famous religion tha Jainism and spread across the country as well as outside of it.
*Gautam was borned in 563 BC in Lumbini in Nepal in a Shakya clan.
*His father’s name was Suddhodhana was a Shaka ruler and mother mahamayawas from Koshala. His mother died in his early childhood age and he was brought up by his step mother Gautami.
*Gautam married to Yashodhara and had a son named Rahul.
*Gautam left his home at the age of 29 and at the age of 35 under a peepal tree in Bodhgaya attained the knowledge or nirbana.
*He gave his first sermon at Sarnath.
*And lastly he died at the age of 80at Kushinagar.
Phases of Gautam Buddha life:
1. Mahabhinishkramana: Left the home and lead a ascetic life.
2. Nirvana: Attainment of knowledge
3. Dharmachakraparivartana: First sermon
4. Mahaparinirvana: Death
THE DHHAMA: The four great truths are:
>The world is full of sorrow and misery.
>The cause of all the pain and misery is desire.
>Pain and misery can be ended by controlling or finishing the desire
>And the desire can be controlled by the following Eight fold path
EIGHT FOLD PATH:
1. Right understanding 2. Right thought
3. Right action 4. Right livelihood
5. Right efforts 6. Right Speech
7. Right mindfulness 8. Right concentration
THE BUDDHIST COUNCILS:
1st Council: (483 BC) was held at Rajgriha under the chairmanship of Mahakashyapa and under patronage of King Ajatashatru.
2nd Council: (383 BC) was held at Vaishali under the under the chairmanship of Sabakami and under patronage of King Kalashoka.
3rd Council: (250 BC) was held at Patliputra under the under the chairmanship of Mogaliputta Tissa and under patronage of King Ashoka.
4th Council: (72AD) was held at Kundalvana under the under the chairmanship of Ashwaghosa and vasumitra and under patronage of king Kanishk.
Buddhist literature: All the texts were written in the Pali language and reffered to as Tripitakas.
1. Sutta Pitaka: Contains Buddha’s sermons and teaching. It is the largest among the three.
2. Vinayaka pitaka: Contains rules and regulations maintained in the Buddhist monasteries.
3. Abhidhama Pitaka Contains the philosophical meaning of the Buddhist religion.
Mahavansha and Dipavansha are two important Buddhist texts in Sri lanka The